A significantly higher quantity of alloantibodies were produced per patient with increasing quantity of transfusions ( em P /em =0.013), however, no such association was observed between quantity of alloantibodies and pregnancy. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (195 of 304 alloantibodies, 64.1%). 403 individuals (0.82%). In the serum samples of 164 individuals only autoantibodies were recognized, 27 exposed autoantibodies with one or more underlying alloantibodies, while 212 individuals had only alloantibody/ies in their serum. The overall alloimmunization rate was 0.49 per cent. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (64.1%), the most common alloantibody identified being anti E (37.2%), followed by anti D (19.2%). Interpretation & conclusions: Since clinically significant antibodies are frequently detected in our patient population, antibody screening and if required, recognition is the need of the hour. Since antibodies against the common Rh and Kell blood group antigens are the most frequent, provision of Rh and Kell matched reddish cells may be of protecting value. 0.05. (Table I). Table I Relationship between numerous factors and alloimmunization status Open in a separate windowpane Results A total of 49,077 patient samples were screened for the presence of unpredicted antibodies. This included 29,917 (60.96%) males and 19,160 (39.04%) females. Antibody screening was positive in 403 individuals 1-(3,4-Dimethoxycinnamoyl)piperidine (0.82%). In 164 individuals (0.33%) only autoantibodies were identified, 27 (0.05%) revealed autoantibodies with one or more underlying alloantibody/ies, while 212 individuals (0.43%) had only alloantibody/ies. The overall alloimmunization rate was 0.49 per cent, being 0.74 per cent (142/19,160) among females and 0.32 per cent (97/29,917) in males, the difference between the two being statistically significant ( em P /em 0.001). A single alloantibody was recognized 1-(3,4-Dimethoxycinnamoyl)piperidine in 179 individuals, while 54 individuals had 1-(3,4-Dimethoxycinnamoyl)piperidine developed more than one alloantibodies. In six samples the alloantibody/ies could not become accurately characterized. Among the alloimmunized instances, 166 experienced received one or more transfusions of blood and blood parts in the past. Of the 142 alloimmunized ladies, 75 experienced a history including one or more pregnancies. In the alloimmunized group, a significant increase in the pace of alloimmunization was observed with an increase in quantity of transfusions and pregnancies ( em P /em =0.004 for both). A significantly higher quantity of alloantibodies were produced per patient with increasing quantity of transfusions ( em P /em =0.013), however, no such association was observed between quantity of alloantibodies and pregnancy. Antibodies against the Rh system were the most frequent (195 of 304 alloantibodies, 64.1%). The most common alloantibody recognized was anti E (89/239 instances, 37.2%), closely followed by anti D (46/239 instances, 19.2%). The exact specificity of the antibodies could Rabbit Polyclonal to STK36 not be identified in the serum of six individuals. One of these instances was reported as antibody against a high incidence antigen, since most of the panel cells were reacting with it. The others were either antibodies against a low incidence antigen or an antigen not 1-(3,4-Dimethoxycinnamoyl)piperidine typed in the cell panel. The rate of recurrence and specificities of the various alloantibodies recognized are provided in Table II. Though rate of alloimmunization was significantly higher in RhD bad individuals ( em P /em =0.001) compared to RhD positive individuals, the number of alloantibodies identified per patient did not display any significant correlation with the RhD status. Table II Rate of recurrence and specificities of the alloantibodies recognized Open in a separate windowpane Of the 191 autoantibodies recognized, 145 were warm reacting (at 37C) and 46 were cold autoantibodies reacting best at 4C but showing variable thermal amplitudes and medical significance. Clinical conditions associated with the presence of autoantibodies included haematological diseases including neoplasms, thalassaemia and aplastic anaemia (42%), renal (24%) and liver disease (11%), cardiac disease (9%) and solid organ tumours (3%). Age of the immunized individuals ranged from 1 to 91 yr having a mean age of 46.3 yr. No correlation was observed between the age 1-(3,4-Dimethoxycinnamoyl)piperidine of the patient and rate of alloimmunization or the number of antibodies recognized. Alloimmunization rates were higher in ladies with more obstetric events ( em P /em =0.004) and in individuals with higher quantity of transfusions ( em P /em =0.004). An increase in the number of transfusions significantly raised the level of alloantibodies developed in a patient (0.013) (Table I). Discussion Red cell alloimmunization.